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Types of Interpreting

We provide interpreters for all types of interpreting:

Simultaneous Interpreting

  • Most effective for large meetings and conferences.
  • Requires specialized equipment: all contributions are relayed by microphone to the team of interpreters working from soundproof booths within the room – their interpretation is then transmitted back to the delegates through individual headsets.
  • At least two interpreters per language in a booth who each interpret for thirty minutes. When not interpreting, the other interpreter will stay in the booth and prepare for the next speech and help the other interpreter if necessary.
  • A high level of education, training and preparation is required on the part of interpreters in order to carry out the skill of simultaneous interpreting.

Consecutive Interpreting

  • Most efficient at meetings and presentations with a small audience.
  • The interpreter needs to have excellent concentration, memory and understanding.
  • Samples of situations when consecutive interpreting is used are question and answer sessions, presentations, press conferences, speeches, court hearings, conference calls and interviews.
  • The interpreter takes notes while a participant speaks, and an interpretation is then rendered after the speaker has finished, or at appropriate intervals during the speech.
  • No specialist technical equipment is required.

Whispering Interpreting

  • Whispering interpreting or ‘chuchotage’ is usually only used when one or two people do not understand the source language.
  • This type of interpreting is useful for one-to-one or small meetings, walking visits, tours or during social events and dinners.
  • The interpreter is seated next to the meeting participants and simultaneously renders the interpretation in a low voice. 
  • No technical equipment is required.
  • This form of interpreting would not be recommended if more than two people require interpretation as it would create too much noise and distraction. It would only be recommended for short meetings as the technique of whispering and speaking continuously in a low voice strains the vocal chords.
  • As this is a form of simultaneous interpreting, this mode would also require a team of two interpreters.

Liaison Interpreting / Community Interpreting

  • This is also referred to as bilateral interpreting.
  • This procedure is often used for informal situations, small business meetings, and it is also suitable for court interpreting.
  • It involves interpreting on a more one-to-one basis whereby the interpreter will interpret, and ‘liaise’ between two languages to two or more people.
  • This type of interpreting is often used for interpreting in the community, at the request of doctors, lawyers, hospitals, Gardaí, social services and schools.
  • It can also be used over the phone for telephone interpreting.

Interpreting for Health & Safety or Training Courses

  • This is for situations where workers need to be trained in health and safety work practices and other types of workplace training.
  • In some cases if part of the training is ‘on the go’ such as a tour around a construction site, a tour guide/Info port system may be required, whereby a radio and participant headsets are used to enable the interpreter to talk to people on the move.
  • Our interpreters are experienced in interpreting for Health and Safety in the workplace, such as for Safe Pass Health and Safety Awareness Training, and Construction Skills training courses.


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Types of Translation

Due to the continuing involvement of the translation industry there are now certain terms used to define specialist translations that do not fall under a general category. This brief guide offers an explanation of some of the more common translation terms used.

Administrative translation

The translation of administrative texts. Although administrative has a very broad meaning, in terms of translation it refers to common texts used within businesses and organizations that are used in day to day management. It can also be stretched to cover texts with similar functions in government. For more information on our administrative translation, see our translation services page or contact one of our team to discuss.

Computer translation

Not to be confused with CAT, computer assisted translations, which refer to translations carried out by software. Computer translation is the translation of anything to do with computers such as software, manuals, help files, apps etc.

Financial translation

Financial translation is the translation of texts of a financial nature. Anything from banking to asset management to stocks and bonds could be covered under our financial translation service.

Legal translation

Legal translations are one of the trickiest translations known. At its simplest level it means the translation of legal documents such as statutes, contracts and treaties.

All translations will always need special attention. This is because law is culture-dependent and requires a translator with an excellent understanding of both the source and target cultures.

Most translation agencies would only ever use professional legal to undertake such work. This is because there is no real margin for error; the mistranslation of a passage in a contract could, for example, have disastrous consequences.

When translating a text within the field of law, the translator should keep the following in mind. The legal system of the source text is structured in a way that suits that culture and this is reflected in the legal language; similarly, the target text is to be read by someone who is familiar with another legal system and its language.

Medical translation

A medical translation will cover anything from the medical field from the packaging of medicine to manuals for medical equipment to medical books.

Like legal translation, medical translation is specialization where a mistranslation can have grave consequences.

Commercial translation

Commercial translation or professional business translation covers any sort of document used in the business world such as correspondence, company accounts, tender documents, reports, etc. Commercial translations require specialist translators with knowledge of terminology used in the business world.

Economic translation

Similar to commercial or business translation, economic translation is simply a more specific term used for the translation of documents relating to the field of economics. Such texts are usually a lot more academic in nature.

General translation

A general translation is the simplest of translations. A general text means that the language used is not high level and to a certain extent could be in layman's terms. There is no specific or technical terminology used. Most translations carried out fall under this category.

Literary translation

A literary translation is the translation of literature such as novels, poems, plays and poems.

The translation of literary works is considered by many one of the highest forms of translation as it involves so much more than simply translating text. A literary translator must be capable of also translating feelings, cultural nuances, humor and other subtle elements of a piece of work.

Some go as far as to say that literary translations are not really possible. In 1959 the Russian-born linguist Roman Jakobson went as far as to declare that "poetry by definition [was] untranslatable". In 1974 the American poet James Merrill wrote a poem, "Lost in Translation," which in part explores this subject.

Technical translation

A technical translation has a broad meaning. It usually refers to certain fields such as IT or manufacturing and deals with texts such as manuals and instructions. Technical translations are usually more expensive than general translations as they contain a high amount of terminology that only a specialist translator could deal with.

Statements of Truth, Translations and witnesses in other languages

The requirements of the CPR that deal with the signing of statements of truth when the witness is unable to read the document are clear and easy to follow, but it can be easy to fail in order to get it right; this is often problematic and it can be something to be relied upon in a successful application to strike-out a claim.

1. CPR 22 3A.1 states:

"Where a document containing a statement of truth is to be signed by a person who is unable to read or sign the document, it must contain a certificate made by an authorized person.” 

An authorized person is specified by CPR 22 3A.2 to be a person able to administer oaths and take affidavits, but they do not need to be independent of the parties or their representatives. 

2. CPR 22 3A.4 directs that the form of the certificate which must be used appears in Annex 1 to the Practice Direction:

"I certify that I [name and address of authorized person] have read over the contents of this document and the declaration of truth to the person signing the document [if there are exhibits, add ‘and explained the nature and effect of the exhibits referred to in it’] who appeared to understand (a) the document and approved its content as accurate and (b) the declaration of truth and the consequences of making a false declaration, and made his mark in my presence.”

3. The consequences of failing to verify a document with a statement of truth are set out at CPR 22 4. A statement of case remains effective, unless it is struck out, but a party may not rely on the contents of a statement of case as evidence until it has been verified by a statement of truth. 4.2 states that any party can apply to the court for an unless order specifying that the statement of case must be verified by the service of a statement of truth, failing which the statement of case will be struck out. 4.3 specifies that the usual order for the costs of an application for an unless order will be that the party who failed to verify will pay the costs.

4. Many practitioners draft witness evidence in English and, if the witness requires the assistance of a translator, add a certificate in the form of Annex 1 to CPR 22 to the witness statement. However, CPR 32.4(1) specifies that “a witness statement is a written statement signed by a person which contains the evidence which that person would be allowed to give orally.” When a witness will not give their evidence orally in English, the statement should be in the language the witness will use; that statement should then be translated into English. 

This article is provided free of charge for information purposes only; it does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied on as such. No responsibility for the accuracy and/or correctness of the information and commentary set out in the article, or for any consequences of relying on it, is assumed or accepted by any member of Chambers or by Chambers as a whole.



Accurately transcribed information is vibrant for the smooth functioning of any occasion. Transcription includes creating a textual transcript of audio or video recordings of various interactions including medical advisory, interviews, meetings, conferences, workshops, presentations, courts, educational purposes etc..

Accurately transcribed information is vibrant for the smooth functioning of any occasion. Transcription includes creating a textual transcript of audio or video recordings of various interactions including medical advisory, interviews, meetings, conferences, workshops, presentations, courts, educational purposes etc..

Intelligent Transcription

The intelligent Transcription process does not involve any kind of emotions, half-sentences, mumbled or garbled speech in the written text format. The actual result of this transcription is that it’s straightforward and the final words would be full of inelegance to make it worth it. To perform this audio or video to text transcription a well-qualified and trained transcriber required the experience to do such jobs carefully, as they need to have a complete understanding of what the speaker is trying to convey to the audience.

Verbatim Transcription

This process is also costly because it involves ensuring that every word spoken, emotion, laughter, scream, background noise even mumbled or muttered or confusing phrases or words are carefully transcribed and time-coded into the format written, making it like a replica. Of the audio or video file as recorded.

Edited Transcription

Edited Transcriptions are often used when the transcriber can omit the parts from the video or audio file, without disturbing the meaning of the recording does not change at all. Though, this type of transcription is time-consuming as the transcriber must know what is important to keep in adios or video files and what is not important. Edited transcriptions require the transcriber to understand the sense or purpose of the video or audio file and just clean up the odds of retaining the reliability of the audio or video file.

Phonetic Transcription

This type of transcription notes the way spoken words are pronounced using phonetic symbols. We know that the English language has 26 alphabets, but approximately 44 unique sounds are called phonemes. Well, the pertinent question now is what a phoneme is. It is the smallest unit of speech that can make one word different from another.


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Types of Transcription




Legalisation of Documents

If you are going to use British documents overseas, for business or personal reasons, it is possible you will be asked to have your documents legalized before they can be accepted.

You will need an Apostille Certificate, also known as the Hague Apostille, when a foreign organization has requested that you have UK-sourced papers legalized as proof of authenticity. In the UK the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) Legalization Office will apply an Apostille Certificate only to UK-sourced papers and, once done, they will be usable overseas. There is a reciprocal agreement between countries signed up to Convention 12 of the Hague Convention stating that member states will accept paperwork apostilled in any of the other member states.

What can we legalise by apostille?

UK Educational Certificates etc.

We can certify all educational papers, letters or certificates. They must be signed by a practicing UK solicitor or notary before they can be apostilled. The solicitor or notary will confirm that the document is original if that is the case, or a true photocopy if you would prefer.

UK birth, death, marriage and civil partnership certificates

We can only apostille original or certified copies of certificates issued by the General Registry Office (GRO) or local Registry Offices in the UK. The apostille certificate will be attached directly to the certificate.

We can also apostille original death certificates issued by a UK coroner. Translations of these can also be apostilled if they have been signed by a practicing UK solicitor or notary. Please note that we are NOT able to apostille photocopies of these, even if they have been signed by a practicing UK solicitor or notary or attached to a notarial cover sheet.


We cannot apostille original passports of any nationality. Black & white photocopies of the photo page of British and foreign passports may be apostilled if they have been certified by a UK solicitor or notary public as being true photocopies of the original.

Change of name deed poll

All change of name deed poll documents (originals as well as copies) must be certified by a practicing UK solicitor or notary public as being original, or true photocopies, before they can be apostilled.

UK court (county court) papers

Original papers issued by UK courts can be apostilled. Photocopies of these can also be apostilled if they have been certified by a practicing UK solicitor or notary public as being true copies of the original.

We can obtain copies of Decree Absolutes from the Family Court. Contact us for more details.

Powers of attorney, wills, affidavits, declarations and notarial acts

Originals of these can be apostilled if they have been signed in the UK by the individual(s) concerned and the signature(s) witnessed by a practicing UK solicitor or notary public.

The solicitor or notary public should certify this clearly on the document.

We can obtain registered Powers of Attorney and some Probate documents.

Certificates of incorporation and other paperwork issued by Companies House

We can apostille originals of these only if they have been signed by an official of Companies House. If the originals do not bear an original signature of a Companies House official then they must be certified by a practicing UK solicitor or notary public as being originals. Photocopies of Companies House paperwork can be apostilled if they have been certified by a UK solicitor or notary public as being true copies of the originals.

Export certificates

We can apostille export certificates only if they have been signed by an official of the relevant UK Government Department. Photocopies of export certificates may be apostilled if a practicing UK solicitor or notary public has certified them to confirm that they are true copies of the originals.

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Documents from HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC)

Original documents from HMRC can be apostilled if they are signed by an HMRC official, a practicing UK solicitor or a notary public.

Photocopies of these can also be apostilled if they have been certified by a practicing UK solicitor or notary public as being true copies of the original.

National identification Certificates, Association of Chief Police Officer certificates and Disclosures

Only originals issued by the National Identification Service (NIS) and signed by an NIS official can be apostilled. We cannot apostille photocopies of these under any circumstances.

Original disclosures must be signed by a member of the Criminal Records Bureau or a practising UK solicitor or notary public before they can be apostilled. We cannot apostille photocopies of these under any circumstances.

Only originals from the Association Of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) can be apostilled and should be signed by an ACPO official. Photocopies of these cannot be apostilled under any circumstances

Foreign language translations

We can apostille translations of UK documents issued or executed in the UK. These need to be certified by a practising UK solicitor or notary public confirming that they are true translations. Please note that we are not able to apostille documents on the signatures of the translators unless they are also a practising UK solicitor or notary public, or a consular official.

Foreign documents

If you have a foreign document which requires legalization you should contact the relevant Embassy, Consulate or High Commission in the UK for advice.

If you have been advised that your document needs to be appended to a notarial coversheet containing a certification from a practicing UK solicitor or notary public, we can only apostille the notarial certificate.

Alternatively photocopies of foreign documents can be apostilled if they have been certified by a practicing UK solicitor or notary public as being true copies of the original.

How do I pronounce APOSTILLE


Apostille is a French word that means a certification. It is commonly used in English to refer to the certification  of a document for international use under the terms of the 1961 Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents.

UK Legal Services Translation Ltd


Head Office - Manchester

Foreign House

289 Cheetham Hill Road

M8 0SN


124 City Road, London, EC1V 2NX


Stone House

Clough End Road

Rossendale BB4 5AN


0044 (0) 203 950 7188

0044 (0) 161 795 3377


Please note due to the Pandemic, restrictions may be in place in regards to face to face appointments and when attending at our Manchester Office.

For more information, please call us and speak to member of our staff.




Overseas Criminal Checks

We can provide services for overseas criminal or security checks, for more details call or email us.

Assistance in Form Filling

We provide services for all kinds of form filling, for more details call or email us.

Mission Statement

"Countering language barriers with professionalism and expertise"


We believe effective communication is a vital part of any dialogue between two more parties. When it comes to understanding languages, UKLST is at the forefront of providing interpreters and translators to ensure professional and custom-tailored services to top quality companies at all times.

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